Oracle8(TM) Server Utilities
Release 8.0






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This manual describes how to use the Oracle8 Server utilities for data transfer, maintenance, and database administration, including various migration and upgrade/downgrade operations.

This preface covers the following sections:

The Oracle Utilities


Export and Import are two complementary programs that constitute a single utility. Export writes data from an Oracle database into transportable files. Import reads data from those files back into an Oracle database. These utilities help you back up data, upgrade to new releases of the Oracle Server, and move data between Oracle databases.  


The SQL*Loader utility loads data from external files into Oracle database tables. SQL*Loader processes a wide variety of input file formats and gives you control over how records are loaded.  

NLS Utilities  

The NLS Configuration Utility allows you to configure your boot files so that only the NLS objects that you require will be loaded.  

Offline Database Verification (DB_VERIFY)  

DB_VERIFY is an external command-line utility that performs a physical data structure integrity check on an offline database. It can be used against backup files and online files (or pieces of files). You use DB_VERIFY primarily when you need to insure that a backup database (or datafile) is valid before it is restored or as a diagnostic aid when you have encountered data corruption problems. Because DB_VERIFY can be run against an offline database, integrity checks are significantly faster.  

This manual describes the basic concepts behind each utility and provides examples to show how the utilities are used.

Some of the information this manual provides must be supplemented for the high-security version of the Oracle8 Server, Trusted Oracle. Such information is marked with references to the Trusted Oracle documentation.


This manual assumes that your existing Oracle system is Version 7, Release 7.3, except where noted otherwise. If you are using Export/Import with Version 6 or early Oracle7 releases, and a part of the Oracle system that is planned for migration to Oracle8 is less than Release 7.3, in most cases you should refer to the Oracle7 Server Migration, Release 7.3 manual for guidance in migrating/upgrading to Release 7.3 before migrating to Release 8.0.3.


This manual is for database administrators (DBAs), application programmers, security administrators, system operators, and other Oracle users who perform the following tasks:

This manual assumes you are familiar with the Oracle7 Server, Release 7.3 (including whatever previous releases your system is running) and with the operating system environment that Oracle is running in.

You should be familiar also with Oracle DBMS concepts. For review you could read the chapter, "Introduction to the Oracle7 Server," in Oracle8 Server Reference Manual, a comprehensive introduction to the concepts and terminology that are used throughout this manual.

To use this manual, you need a working knowledge of SQL and Oracle8 Server fundamentals, information that is contained in the "Introduction to the Oracle Server", in Oracle8 Server Concepts. In addition, SQL*Loader requires that you know how to use your operating system's file management facilities.

Note: This manual does not contain instructions for installing the utilities, which depend on the platform operating system. Installation instructions for the utilities can be found in the operating-system-specific Oracle8 documentation.

How This Book Is Organized

This manual is divided into four parts:

Part I: Export/Import

Chapter 1: Export

This chapter describes how to use Export to write data from an Oracle database into transportable files. It discusses guidelines, export modes, interactive and command-line methods, parameter specifications, and incremental exports. It also provides several examples of Export sessions.

Chapter 2: Import

This chapter shows you how to use Import to read data from Export files into an Oracle database. It discusses guidelines, interactive and command-line methods, parameter specifications, and incremental imports. It also provides several examples of Import sessions.

Part II: SQL*Loader

Chapter 3: SQL*Loader Concepts

This chapter introduces SQL*Loader and describes its features. It also introduces data loading concepts. It discusses input to SQL*Loader, database preparation, and output from SQL*Loader.

Chapter 4: SQL*Loader Case Studies

This chapter presents case studies that illustrate some of the features of SQL*Loader. It demonstrates the loading of variable-length data, fixed-format records, a free-format file, multiple physical records as one logical record, multiple tables, and direct file loads.

Chapter 5: SQL*Loader Control File Reference

This chapter describes the data definition language (DDL) used by SQL*Loader to map data to Oracle format. It discusses creating the control file to hold DDL source, using the LOAD DATA statement, specifying data files, specifying tables and columns, and specifying the location of data.

Chapter 6: SQL*Loader Command-Line Reference

This chapter describes the command-line syntax used by SQL*Loader. It discusses the SQLLOAD command, command-line arguments, suppressing SQL*Loader messages, and sizing the bind array.

Chapter 7: SQL*Loader: Log File Reference

This chapter describes the information contained in the log file.

Chapter 8: SQL*Loader: Conventional and Direct Path Loads

This chapter describes the conventional path load method and the direct path load method- a high performance option that significantly reduces the time required to load large quantities of data.

Part III: NLS Utilities

Chapter 9: National Language Support Utilities

Part III explains how to use the NLS utilities: the NLS Data Installation utility, which helps you convert text-format updates to NLS objects; The NLS Configuration utility, which helps you configure your NLS boot files so that only the NLS objects you want will be loaded; the NLS Calendar utility, which allows you to update existing NLS calendar data with additional ruler eras.

Chapter 10: Offline Database Verification Utility

This chapter describes how to use the offline database verification utility.

Part IV: Appendixes

SQL*Loader Reserved Words

This appendix lists the words reserved by the Oracle utilities.

Appendix B: DB2/DXT User Notes

This appendix describes differences between the data definition language syntax of SQL*Loader and DB2 Load Utility control files. It discusses SQL*Loader extensions to the DB2 Load Utility, the DB2 RESUME option, options included for compatibility, and SQL*Loader restrictions.

Conventions Used in This Manual

This manual follows textual and typographic conventions explained in the following sections.

Text of the Manual

The following conventions are used in the text of this manual:  


Uppercase text is used to call attention to command keywords, object names, parameters, filenames, and so on, for example:  


"If you create a private rollback segment, its name must be included in the ROLLBACK_SEGMENTS parameter in the PARAMETER file."  

Italicized Words  

Italicized words are used at the first occurrence and definition of a term, as in the following example:  


"A database is a collection of data to be treated as a unit. The general purpose of a database is to store and retrieve related information, as needed."  


Italicized words are used also to indicate emphasis, book titles, and to highlight names of performance statistics.  

PL/SQL, SQL, and SQL*Plus commands and statements are displayed in a fixed-width font using the following conventions, separated from normal text as in the following example:


Punctuation: , ' "  

Example statements may include punctuation such as commas or quotation marks. All punctuation given in example statements is required. All statement examples end with a semicolon. Depending on the application in use, a semicolon or other terminator may or may not be required to end a statement.  


Uppercase words in example statements indicate the keywords in Oracle SQL. However, when you issue statements, keywords are not case-sensitive.  

Lowercase Words: emp, users2.ora  

Lowercase words in example statements indicate words supplied only for the context of the example. For example, lowercase words may indicate the name of a table, column, or file. Some operating systems are case sensitive, so refer to your installation or user's manual to find whether you must pay attention to case.  

We Welcome Your Comments

We value and appreciate your comments as an Oracle user and reader of our manuals. As we write, revise, and evaluate, your opinions are the most important input we receive. At the back of this manual is a Reader's Comment Form that we encourage you to use to tell us both what you like and what you dislike about this (or other) Oracle manuals. If the form is missing, or you would like to contact us, please use the following address or fax number:

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