| Programmer's Guide to the Oracle Call Interface
The Oracle Call Interface (OCI) is an application programming interface (API) that allows applications written in C to interact with one or more Oracle Servers. The OCI gives your programs the capability to perform the full range of database operations that are possible with Oracle8 Server, including SQL statement processing and object manipulation.
The Preface includes the following sections:
This guide gives you a sound basis for developing applications using the OCI. The guide is divided into two volumes.
Volume I contains information about the following topics:
Volume II contains the following information:
The Programmer's Guide to the Oracle Call Interface is intended for programmers developing new applications or converting existing applications to run in the Oracle environment. This comprehensive treatment of the OCI will also be valuable to systems analysts, project managers, and others interested in the development of database applications.
This guide assumes that you have a working knowledge of application programming using C. Readers should also be familiar with the use of Structured Query Language (SQL) to access information in relational database systems. In addition, some sections of this guide also assume a knowledge of the basic concepts of object-oriented programming.
For information about SQL, refer to the Oracle8 Server SQL Reference and the Oracle8 Server Administrator's Guide. For information about basic Oracle concepts, see Oracle8 Server Concepts. For information about the Oracle Precompilers, which enable you to embed SQL commands in a third-generation language (3GL) application, refer to the Programmer's Guide to the Pro*C/C++ Precompiler and the Programmer's Guide to the Oracle Pro*COBOL Precompiler.
The Programmer's Guide to the Oracle Call Interface provides an introduction to the features of the OCI for both new OCI programmers and those programmers who have previously worked with earlier versions of the OCI.
Part 1 of this guide (Chapters 1 through 7) provides conceptual information about how to program with the OCI to access relational data in an Oracle database. This part describes the basics of OCI programming and builds the foundation for the discussion of object-relational features in Part 2.
Part 2 of this guide (Chapters 8 through 12) describes OCI functionality for accessing object-relational data with the OCI. The chapters in this part describe how to retrieve and manipulate objects through the Oracle8 Server.
Part 3 of this book (Chapters 13 through 16) lists all function calls in the Oracle8 OCI library.
Part 4 of this book (Appendices A through F) provides additional information about OCI programming, along with complete code examples.
Because of the many enhancements to the OCI for Release 8.0, both new and experienced users should read the conceptual material in Part 1. Although most basic concepts (e.g., binding, defining, etc.) have remained the same as in Release 7.3, those concepts have a new implementation in Release 8.0.
Readers familiar with the current version of the OCI and interested in its object capabilities may want to skim Part 1 and then begin reading the chapters in Part 2.
Readers looking for reference information (e.g., OCI function syntax, handle attribute descriptions) should refer to Volume II.
The Programmer's Guide to the Oracle Call Interface contains four parts, split between two volumes. A brief summary of what you will find in each chapter and appendix follows:
Chapter 1: Introduction and New Features
This chapter introduces you to the Oracle Call Interface and describes special terms and typographical conventions that are used in describing the interfaces. This chapter also mentions features new to the current release.
Chapter 2: OCI Programming Basics
This chapter gives you the basic concepts needed to develop an OCI program. It discusses the essential steps each OCI program must include, and how to retrieve and understand error messages
Understanding how data is converted between Oracle tables and variables in your host program is essential for using the OCI interfaces. This chapter discusses Oracle internal and external datatypes, and data conversions.
Chapter 4: SQL Statement Processing
This chapter discusses the steps involved in SQL statements using the Oracle8 OCI.
Chapter 5: Binding and Defining
This chapter discusses OCI bind and define operations in detail, including a discussion of advanced bind and define operations.
Chapter 6: Describing Schema Metadata
This chapter discusses how to use the OCIDescribeAny() call to obtain information about schema objects and their associated elements.
Chapter 7: OCI Programming Advanced Topics
This chapter covers more sophisticated OCI programming topics, including descriptions of transaction management, LOB support, advanced binding and defining, and other functionality.
Chapter 8: Object-Relational Programming with the OCI
This chapter provides an introduction to the concepts involved when using the OCI to access objects in an Oracle8 Server. The chapter includes a discussion of basic object concepts and object pinning, and the basic structure of object-relational applications.
Chapter 9: Object-Relational Datatypes
This chapter outlines the object datatypes used in OCI programming.
Chapter 10: Binding and Defining in Object Applications
This chapter discusses the C mappings of user-defined datatypes in an Oracle8 database, and the functions that manipulate such data. Binding and defining using these C mappings is also covered.
Chapter 11: Object Cache and Object Navigation
This chapter provides an introduction to the concepts involved when using the OCI to access objects in an Oracle8 Server. This chapter also discusses the Object Cache, and the use of the OCI navigational calls to manipulate objects retrieved from the server.
Chapter 12: Using the Object Type Translator
This chapter discusses the use of the Object Type Translator to convert database object definitions to C structure representations for use in OCI applications.
Chapter 13: OCI Relational Functions
This chapter contains a list of the OCI relational functions, including syntax, comments, parameter descriptions, and other useful information.
Chapter 14: OCI Navigational Functions
This chapter contains a list of the OCI navigational functions, including syntax, comments, parameter descriptions, and other useful information.
Chapter 15: OCI Datatype Mapping and Manipulation Functions
This chapter contains a list of the OCI datatype mapping and manipulation functions, including syntax, comments, parameter descriptions, and other useful information.
Chapter 16: OCI External Procedure Functions
This chapter discusses special OCI functions used by external procedures.
Appendix A: Upgrading Release 7.x OCI Applications to Release 8.0
This appendix discusses the issues involved in upgrading existing OCI applications to use the new Oracle8 OCI. This includes lists of those OCI calls which are now obsolescent or obsolete.
Appendix B: Handle and Descriptor Attributes
This appendix describes the attributes of OCI application handles that can be set or read using OCI calls.
Appendix C: Oracle Reserved Words, Keywords and Namespaces
This appendix lists words that have a special meaning to Oracle, and namespaces reserved by Oracle products.
This appendix includes complete OCI application code examples.
Appendix E: OCI Function Server Roundtrips
This appendix includes tables which show the number of server roundtrips required by various OCI applications.
Appendix F: Oracle8 OCI New Features
This appendix provides detailed information about features and enhancements available in the Oracle8 OCI.
The following notational and text formatting conventions are used in this guide:
Square brackets indicate that the enclosed item is optional. Do not type the brackets.
Braces enclose items of which only one is required.
A vertical bar separates items within braces, and may also be used to indicate that multiple values are passed to a function parameter.
In code fragments, an ellipsis means that code not relevant to the discussion has been omitted.
SQL or C code examples are shown in monospaced font.
Italics are used for OCI parameters, OCI routines names, file names, and data fields.
Uppercase is used for SQL keywords, like SELECT or UPDATE.
Boldface type is used to identify the names of C datatypes, like ub4, sword, or OCINumber.
This guide uses special text formatting to draw the reader's attention to some information. A paragraph that is indented and begins with a bold text label may have special meaning. The following paragraphs describe the different types of information that are flagged this way.
Note: The "Note" flag indicates that the reader should pay particular attention to the information to avoid a common problem or increase understanding of a concept.
7.x Upgrade Note: An item marked with "7.x Upgrade Note" typically alerts the programmer to something that is done much differently in the release 8.0 OCI than in the 7.x OCIs.
Warning: An item marked as "Warning" indicates something that an OCI programmer must be careful to do or not do in order for an application to work correctly.
See Also: Text marked "See Also" points you to another section of this guide, or to other documentation, for additional information about the topic being discussed.
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