Net8(TM) Administrator's Guide
Release 8.0.3






Title and Copyright Information


1 Introduction to Net8

1.1 What Net8 Does
1.2 Net8 Applications
1.3 Why Use Net8?
1.3.1 Network Transparency
1.3.2 Protocol Independence
1.3.3 Media/Topology Independence
1.3.4 Heterogeneous Networking
1.3.5 Large Scale Scalability
1.4 Net8 Release 8.0.3 Features Multiplexing with Oracle Connection Manager Connection Pooling Improved Listener Load Balancing Client Cache Daemon Process Net8 Components Require Minimal Configuration Oracle Net8 Assistant Trace Assistant Native Naming Adapters Network Access Control and Public Key Authentication Net8 OPEN and UNIX Signal Handling
1.5 Net8's Related Oracle Products

2 Understanding Net8

2.1 Net8 Operations
2.1.1 Connect Operations Connecting to Servers Disconnecting from Servers
2.1.2 Data Operations
2.1.3 Exception Operations
2.2 Net8 and the Transparent Network Substrate (TNS)
2.3 Net8 Architecture
2.3.1 Stack Communications
2.3.2 Stack Communications in an Oracle networking environment Client-Server Interaction
2.3.3 Server-to-Server Interaction
2.4 Net8 and the Network Listener
2.4.1 Establishing Connections with the Network Listener Bequeathed Sessions to Dedicated Server Processes Redirected Sessions to Existing Server Processes Refused Sessions
2.5 Oracle Names
2.5.1 Dynamic Service Registration What Data is Stored by Oracle Names Registration Using Oracle Names Control Utility
2.5.2 Client/Server Discovery of Names Servers
2.5.3 Client Cache Daemon Process
2.6 Oracle Connection Manager
2.6.1 Concentration
2.6.2 Network Access Control
2.6.3 Multiple Protocol Support
2.6.4 Routing Sessions Through Oracle Connection Manager
2.6.5 Using Oracle Connection Manager with Oracle Names

3 Planning Your Network

3.1 Planning Overview
3.2 Defining Your Network Layout
3.3 Organizing and Naming Network Components
3.3.1 Flat Naming Model
3.3.2 Hierarchical Naming Model Domains Default Domains Multiple Domains Using Consistent Domain Names
3.3.3 Using Regions to Decentralize Administrative Responsibilities How Multiple Region Networks Are Organized
3.4 Resolving Service Names
3.4.1 Naming Methods
3.4.2 Host Naming Establishing a Connection Using the Host Naming Option
3.4.3 External Naming Establishing a Connection Using the External Naming Option
3.4.4 Centralized Naming using Oracle Names Establishing a Connection Using the Centralized Naming Option Oracle Names and Native Naming Adapters
3.4.5 Local Naming Establishing a Connection Using the Local Naming Option
3.4.6 Choosing a Naming Method
3.5 Managing Connection Requests
3.6 Improving Network Performance
3.6.1 Connection Pooling
3.6.2 Multiplexing
3.6.3 Using Connection Pooling and Multiplexing
3.6.4 Load Balancing Listener Load Balancing Randomizing Client Requests among Several Listeners
3.6.5 Optimizing Data Transfer by Adjusting the Session Data Unit (SDU) Size
3.6.6 Persistent Buffer Flushing for TCP/IP
3.6.7 Configuring Listener Queuesize
3.7 Planning Summary

4 Configuring Network Clients

4.1 Default Client Configuration
4.2 Oracle Net8 Assistant
4.2.1 The Oracle Net8 Assistant and Java
4.2.2 Configuring a Profile Using the Oracle Net8 Assistant
4.2.3 Configuring Non-Default Logging Features
4.2.4 Configuring Tracing Features
4.2.5 Routing Connections Specifying Dedicated Server Processes Specifying Automatic Interprocess Communication (IPC) Routing Connections through Oracle Connection Manager
4.2.6 Configuring Advanced Net8 Functionality Enabling Dead Connection Detection Registering Unique Client Identifiers Turning Off Signal Handling Disabling Out of Band Breaks
4.2.7 Configuring the Use and Order of Naming Methods
4.2.8 Configuring Centralized Naming Using Oracle Names
4.2.9 Configuring Host Naming
4.2.10 Configuring External Naming
4.2.11 Configuring Oracle Names Servers Using the Oracle Net8 Assistant
4.2.12 Configuring the Server as a Client
4.2.13 Configuring Service Names Using the Oracle Net8 Assistant Configuring Service Names Adjusting the Session Data Unit (SDU) Size Specifying Source Route Addresses

5 Configuring Network Services

5.1 Configuring the Listener
5.1.1 Listening Addresses Defining Multiple Listening Addresses Interprocess Communication (IPC) Listening Addresses Specifying the Queue Size for the Listener
5.1.2 Database System Identifiers Configuring Prestarted or Prespawned Dedicated Server Processes
5.1.3 Registering Information with a Names Server
5.1.4 Listener Features
5.2 Configuring Oracle Connection Manager
5.2.1 Listening Addresses
5.2.2 Enabling Multiplexing
5.2.3 Enabling Multiprotocol Support
5.2.4 Specifying Network Access Control Rules
5.2.5 Additional Features that may be configured for Oracle Connection Manager
5.3 Configuring a Names Server
5.3.1 Assigning a Non-Default Name to the Names Server
5.3.2 Assigning a Non-Default Address to the Names Server
5.3.3 Using a Database as a Names Repository in the Region
5.3.4 Specifying Domains within a Region
5.4 Configuring Protocol Specific Parameters
5.4.1 Configuring Validnode Checking
5.4.2 Configuring Persistent Buffer Flushing

6 Migrating to Net8

6.1 Migrating from SQL*Net version 2
6.2 Why Migrate to Net8?
6.3 Considerations for Migrating to Oracle Names version 8
6.3.1 Migrating from Oracle Names version 2 using a Database
6.3.2 Migrating from Oracle Names version 2 using the Dynamic Discovery Option
6.3.3 Checklist for Ensuring Proper Migration to Oracle Names version 8
6.3.4 Other Obsolete Parameters
6.4 Using Oracle Connection Manager instead of Oracle MultiProtocol Interchange
6.5 Migration Scenarios
6.5.1 Migrating an existing Oracle7 Database to Oracle8
6.5.2 Installing a new Oracle8 database in an existing Oracle7 network
6.5.3 Migrating SQL*Net v2 clients to Net8
6.5.4 Migrating to Oracle8 with Oracle Names

7 Using Net8

7.1 Procedures to Get the Network Running
7.2 Net8 Component Testing Methodology
7.3 Net8 Control Utilities
7.3.1 Using the Oracle Names Control Utility (NAMESCTL) Starting a Names Server Testing a Names Server Test Network Objects Using NAMESCTL
7.3.2 Using the Listener Control Utility (LSNRCTL) Starting a Listener Test a Listener
7.3.3 Using the Connection Manager Control Utility (CMCTL) Starting Oracle Connection Manager Testing Oracle Connection Manager
7.3.4 Using TNSPING Starting TNSPING TNSPING Examples
7.3.5 Using TRCROUTE Requirements Effect on Performance Starting the Trace Route Utility Examples of Trace Route Output
7.3.6 Testing a Client Connecting from the Operating System to Test a Client Connecting from the Tool Logon Screen to Test a Client Connecting from 3GL to Test a Client Connecting Using Special Commands within Tools
7.4 Checklist for Troubleshooting Common Startup Problems

8 Troubleshooting Net8

8.1 Troubleshooting Common Network Errors
8.2 Troubleshooting Network Problems Using Log and Trace Files
8.3 Logging Error Information
8.3.1 Error Stacks
8.3.2 Log Filenames
8.3.3 Setting Log Parameters Changing Log File Names Changing Log File Directories
8.3.4 Using Log Files
8.3.5 Listener's Log Audit Trail Format of the Listener's Log Audit Trail Using Audit Trail Information
8.4 Tracing Error Information
8.4.1 Setting Tracing Parameters Setting Trace Parameters Using Component Configuration Files Setting Trace Parameters Using Component Control Utilities Setting Trace Parameters Using Oracle Trace
8.4.2 Evaluating Net8 Traces Understanding the Flow of Data Packets Between Network Nodes Understanding Pertinent Error Output
8.4.3 Using the Trace Assistant to Examine Your Trace Files Understanding Information Traversing the Network in Net8 Packets Analyze the Data Collected into Appropriate Statistics Example of a Trace File
8.5 Contacting Oracle Customer Support

9 Net8 Enhancements for Programmers

9.1 Net8 OPEN
9.1.1 Net8 OPEN API Function Calls
9.1.2 Finding the Net8 OPEN Applications Program Interface
9.1.3 Building Your Own Application
9.1.4 Configuring the System to Use Your Net8 OPEN Application
9.1.5 Sample Programs
9.1.6 Net8 OPEN API Errors
9.2 UNIX Client Programming
9.2.1 Signal Handler and Alarm Programming Oracle OSD Signal Handling Rules
9.2.2 Bequeath Adapter Child Process Termination

10 Extending Net8 Functionality

10.1 Oracle Enterprise Manager
10.2 Oracle Advanced Networking Option
10.3 Oracle Security Server

A Control Utility Reference

A.1 Listener Control Utility (LSNRCTL)
A.1.1 LSNRCTL Commands
A.2 Oracle Names Control Utility (NAMESCTL)
A.2.1 NAMESCTL Operating Modes
A.2.2 NAMESCTL Parameter Options
A.2.3 NAMESCTL SET and SHOW Modifiers
A.2.4 NAMESCTL's Distributed Operation
A.2.5 NAMESCTL Security
A.2.6 Confirmation Mode in NAMESCTL
A.2.7 NAMESCTL Commands
A.3 Connection Manager Control Utility (CMCTL)
A.3.1 CMCTL Commands

B Configuration Parameters

B.1 Syntax Rules for Configuration Files
B.1.1 Further Syntax Rules for Configuration Files
B.1.2 Network Character Set
B.1.3 Service Name Character Set
B.2 Profile Parameters (SQLNET.ORA)
B.3 Local Naming Parameters (TNSNAMES.ORA)
B.4 Listener Parameters (LISTENER.ORA)
B.5 Oracle Names Parameters (NAMES.ORA)
B.6 Oracle Connection Manager Parameters (CMAN.ORA)
B.7 Protocol-specific Parameters (PROTOCOL.ORA)
B.8 Database Initialization Parameters (INIT.ORA)

C Sample Configuration Files

C.1 Local Profile (SQLNET.ORA)
C.2 Local Names Configuration File (TNSNAMES.ORA)
C.3 Listener Configuration File (LISTENER.ORA)
C.4 Names Server Configuration File (NAMES.ORA)
C.5 Oracle Connection Manager Configuration File (CMAN.ORA)

D Native Naming Adapters

D.1.1 System Requirements
D.1.2 How the NIS Naming Adapter Interacts with SQL*Net and Oracle
D.1.3 Oracle Database Service Names are Stored in a Separate NIS Map
D.1.4 Configuring NIS Servers to Support the NIS Adapter
D.1.4.1 Add the tnsnames Map to the Existing Set of NIS Maps
D.1.4.2 Verifying that the tnsnames Map Has Been Properly Installed
D.2.1 How the NDS Adapter Interacts with SQL*Net and Oracle
D.2.1.1 What the Client Does
D.2.1.2 What the Server Does
D.2.2 System Requirements
D.2.3 Optional Configuration Parameters for Clients and Servers
D.2.3.1 Optional Configuration Parameter for the Client
D.2.3.2 Optional Configuration Parameter for the Server Configuration
D.2.4 Known Limitations



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